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Return On Investment (ROI) Definition – Forbes Advisor – Forbes

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Updated: Apr 14, 2021, 6:31pm
Return on investment (ROI) is a metric used to understand the profitability of an investment. ROI compares how much you paid for an investment to how much you earned to evaluate its efficiency. Let’s take a look at how it’s used by both individual investors and businesses.
When you put money into an investment or a business endeavor, ROI helps you understand how much profit or loss your investment has earned. Return on investment is a simple ratio that divides the net profit (or loss) from an investment by its cost. Because it is expressed as a percentage, you can compare the effectiveness or profitability of different investment choices. It is closely related to measures like return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE).
To calculate return on investment, divide the amount you earned from an investment—often called the net profit, or the cost of the investment minus its present value—by the cost of the investment and multiply that by 100. The result should be represented as a percentage. Here are two ways to represent this formula:
ROI = (Net Profit / Cost of Investment) x 100
ROI = (Present Value – Cost of Investment / Cost of Investment) x 100
Let’s say you invested $5,000 in the company XYZ last year, for example, and sold your shares for $5,500 this week. Here’s how you would calculate your ROI for this investment:
ROI = ($5,500 – $5,000 / $5,000) x 100
Your return on investment in company XYZ would be 10%. This simple example leaves out capital gains taxes or any fees involved in buying or selling the shares, but a more realistic calculation would factor those into the cost of the investment.
The percentage figure delivered by the calculation is ROI’s superpower. Instead of a specific dollar amount, you can take this percentage and compare it to the ROI percentage of other investments across different asset classes or currencies to determine which gives the highest yield.
ROI may be used by regular investors to evaluate their portfolios, or it can be applied to assess almost any type of expenditure.
A business owner could use ROI to calculate the return on the cost of advertising, for instance. If spending $50,000 on advertising generated $750,000 in sales, the business owner would be getting a 1,400% ROI on the ad expenditure. Similarly, a real estate owner mulling new appliances might consider the ROI from two different renovation options, factoring in cost and potential rent increases, to make the right choice.
Just keep in mind that ROI is only as good as the numbers you feed into your calculation, and ROI cannot eliminate risk or uncertainty. When you use ROI to decide on future investments, you still need to factor in the risk that your projections of net profits can be too optimistic or even too pessimistic. And, as with all investments, historical performance is no guarantee of future success.
According to conventional wisdom, an annual ROI of approximately 7% or greater is considered a good ROI for an investment in stocks. This is also about the average annual return of the S&P 500, accounting for inflation. Because this is an average, some years your return may be higher; some years they may be lower. But overall, performance will smooth out to around this amount.
That said, determining the appropriate ROI for your investment strategy requires careful consideration rather than a simple benchmark. The S&P 500 may not be appropriate for the level of risk you’re willing to take on or the asset class you’re investing in, for instance. To calculate the ROI that’s good for you, ask yourself the following questions:
ROI is not without limitations. First and foremost, ROI does not take time into account. If one investment had an ROI of 20% over five years and another had an ROI of 15% over two years, the basic ROI calculation cannot help you determine which investment was best. That’s because it doesn’t take into account compounding returns over time.
Annualized ROI can help avoid this limitation. To calculate annualized ROI, you need to employ a little bit of algebra. The value n in the superscript below is key, as it represents the number of years the investment is held.
Annualized ROI = {[1 + (Net Profit / Cost of Investment)] (1/n) – 1} x 100
If you bought a portfolio of securities worth $35,000, and five years later your portfolio was worth $41,000, you’d have earned an annualized ROI of 3.22%. The formula would look like this:
Annualized ROI = {[1 + (6,000 / 35,000)] (1/5) – 1} x 100 = 3.22%
Accurate ROI calculations depend on factoring in all costs, not merely the initial cost of the investment itself. Transaction costs, taxes, maintenance costs and other ancillary expenditures need to be baked into your calculations.
Finally, an ROI calculation that depends on estimated future values but does not include any kind of assessment for risk can be a problem for investors. It is easy to be tempted by high potential ROIs. But the calculation itself does not give any indication of how likely that kind of return will be. This means investors should tread carefully.
ROI is an understandable and easily calculated metric for determining the efficiency of an investment. This widely used calculation allows you to compare apple-to-apples among investment options.
But ROI cannot be the only metric investors use to make their decisions as it does not account for risk or time horizon, and it requires an exact measure of all costs. Using ROI can be a good place to start in evaluating an investment, but don’t stop there.
Emily Guy Birken is a former educator, lifelong money nerd, and a Plutus Award-winning freelance writer who specializes in the scientific research behind irrational money behaviors. Her background in education allows her to make complex financial topics relatable and easily understood by the layperson. She is the author of four books, including End Financial Stress Now and The Five Years Before You Retire.
Ben is the Retirement and Investing Editor for Forbes Advisor. With two decades of business and finance journalism experience, Ben has covered breaking market news, written on equity markets for Investopedia, and edited personal finance content for Bankrate and LendingTree.

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Crypto Podcast: Markets Dip and a Closer Look at the Metaverse – Coindesk

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With crypto markets slightly dipping and a look at why we need rules if we want our virtual worlds to be free and open, CoinDesk’s Markets Daily is back with the latest news roundup.
Adam B. Levine
Adrian Blust
This episode is sponsored by Kava.
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European stocks slip after declines on Wall Street | Financial Times
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North Korean Hackers Stole $400M in 2021, Mostly in Ether
Pakistan Plans to Ban Cryptocurrencies as Stance Hardens
House of Lords Committee Sees ‘No Convincing Case’ for UK CBDC
Crypto Exchange FTX Establishes $2B Fund to Invest in Crypto Startups
Payments Giant Block to Build Open-Source Bitcoin Mining System
Nike and Adidas Are Dipping Toes Into the NFT Market. The Sneakerheads Are Into It
Axie Infinity’s Gaming Sidechain Is Bigger Than Many Major Layer 1s by Volume: Nansen
Featured Story: The Metaverse Needs a Constitution
This episode was edited and produced by Adrian Blust.
The leader in news and information on cryptocurrency, digital assets and the future of money, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.
@2021 CoinDesk

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Tim Cook said Apple is looking at cryptocurrency – Here’s what the company is likely to do – 9to5Mac

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December 28, 2021
Bradley Chambers
– Dec. 28th 2021 6:00 am PT


A few weeks ago, Apple CEO Tim Cook made headlines when he said he personally owns cryptocurrency while mentioning that Apple is looking at it from a technology perspective, but not from a treasury decision. What will Apple do with Bitcoin and cryptocurrency?

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It’s something we are looking at, it’s not something we have immediate plans to do. I would characterize it as there are things that I would not do like our cash balance. I would not go and invest that in crypto not because I would not invest my own money in crypto, but because I don’t think people buy Apple stock to get exposure to crypto. So if they want to do that, they can, you know, invest directly in crypto through other means. And so I would not do that. I’m not planning to in the immediate future to take crypto for our products. As a mane of tender, but there are other things that we are definitely looking at.
During the interview, Cook revealed that he owns cryptocurrency, saying “it’s reasonable to own it as a part of a diversified portfolio,” while also noting that he’s “not giving anybody investment advice.” However, Cook didn’t mention if he owns Bitcoin or another particular type of cryptocurrency.
Apple has plans for its retail financial arm. Its Apple Pay service allows people to send money in particular jurisdictions over iMessage. It also has its Apple Wallet app and associated Apple Pay services for mobile payments. Apple wants to grow its services business, and siphoning off banking services is an ideal way to do it. What does this have to do with cryptocurrency?
I believe that Apple will build a Bitcoin wallet directly into Apple Wallet shortly while also allowing for a low-cost way to purchase Bitcoin on iPhone.
With Bitcoin wallets – where you maintain full control of your bitcoin and move it off an exchange like Coinbase –you are responsible for securing your wallet with a seed phrase. I personally reccomend using a couple of Trezor, Ledger, or Coldcard hardware wallets with a multisig vault with a company like Unchained Capital to eliminate single points of failure with your Bitcoin wallets. I also recommend using a steel wallet like billfodl or SEEDPLATE for securing your seed phrase in case of hardware failure.
For newcomers to Bitcoin, this whole process might seem overwhelming, which is why I think Apple might approach it in a couple of ways:
If Apple operates as a Bitcoin exchange, they’ll let you buy bitcoin directly in the Apple Wallet app using whatever payment methods you have on file. They’ll allow you to store your holdings in Apple Wallet while Apple itself will retain the keys. It’ll look a lot like what Cash App or Coinbase does, where you can send, receive, and store Bitcoin without needing to store your seed phrase.
If Apple sets up a software wallet directly on iPhone, it’ll likely look similar to BlueWallet, where you take self custody of your Bitcoin with a seed phrase backup. You’ll own the keys to your Bitcoin directly on your iPhone and be responsible for backing up the seed phrase. If Apple goes this route, I suspect they’ll build in an encrypted iCloud backup of your seed phrase that’s tied to multi factor authentication in such a way where only you can decrypt it. It’s not ideal, but it’s better than nothing.
Finally, Strike is a company I could see Apple partnering with for global Apple Pay Cash transactions. Twitter is already working with the company for its tipping service. Strike does a couple of things that could be of interest to Apple:
It accomplishes the global payment system using Bitcoin as the transaction medium. If I want to send someone in another country money, I input dollars, it converts it to Bitcoin and converts it back to local currency when received. It sounds simple, but it’s a pretty revolutionary way to process payments globally for free.
I just published Announcing the Strike API
Today, @Twitter enables free, instant, global payments for their users with their integration of the Strike API.
What the internet did for communication, #Bitcoin + the Lightning Network is doing for money.https://t.co/jHkY6knXkP pic.twitter.com/FXujknG7sM
— Jack Mallers (@jackmallers) September 23, 2021

Ultimately, Bitcoin is becoming a significant force to be reckoned with in our world. With a finite supply, decentralization, and digitization of our financial system, it’s likely to continue to play a significant role as digital gold and global settlement network. Apple doesn’t want to miss a massive shift in technology as it seeks to drive services revenue and become a significant player in the financial services industry.
It’s also possible Apple will use Bitcoin as a transaction layer with its online store when the company is concerned about the stability of the local currency as we saw recently in Turkey.
Bitcoin’s energy usage is a common discussion among its critics. While there is a lot to unpack here, I’ve found the video I’ve embedded below to be a great resource to explain how there’s more to the discussion about Bitcoin and energy usage than most people would lead you to believe.
TL;DW: The Bitcoin network uses less energy than the use of Christmas lights in the US.
What do you think Apple will do with Bitcoin and cryptocurrency? Leave a comment below! Interested in learning how to buy Bitcoin? We’ve put together a detailed guide on the best apps for buying Bitcoin on your iPhone
FTC: We use income earning auto affiliate links. More.
Check out 9to5Mac on YouTube for more Apple news:
Breaking news from Cupertino. We’ll give you the latest from Apple headquarters and decipher fact from fiction from the rumor mill.


Bradley lives in Chattanooga, TN.
Tips, feedback, corrections and questions can be sent to Bradley@9to5mac.com.
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94% of Advisors Received Questions About Crypto from Clients in 2021, Bitwise/ETF Trends Survey Finds – Business Wire

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94% of Advisors Received Questions About Crypto from Clients in 2021, Bitwise/ETF Trends Survey Finds  Business Wire
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