High intensity interval training packs a hard workout into a short period of time, which makes it sound like it should be an efficient, superior way to work out. But HIIT doesn’t have as many advantages as we’re led to believe, and often steady-state cardio is the better option. Let’s look at a few factors to keep in mind when you’re choosing what kind of workout you want to do.
One cool thing about low intensity steady-state (LISS) cardio is that it has almost no recovery cost. You can do it as a warmup for a lifting workout, as one of two workouts in a given day, or as a “recovery” workout on an active rest day. As long as you refuel afterwards, eating carbs to replace the muscle glycogen you used, your future workouts won’t take a noticeable toll at all.
HIIT, on the other hand, tends to leave us feeling pooped. If you work hard enough in your HIIT session, you might be too exhausted later on to get in another good workout. Depending on the type of HIIT you did, you may also have issues with muscle soreness at first. These don’t have to be total dealbreakers, but they may shift the balance in favor of LISS.
HIIT is often billed as a time saver, but it doesn’t always deliver on that promise. The total amount of time that you’re working hard might be small (just a few minutes, in many cases), but don’t forget that the reason you can go so hard is that you have nice easy recoveries in between the sprints.
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When you add in the warmup and cooldown, a lot of HIIT workouts take 20 minutes or more, which is starting to sound like the same time commitment as a short session of non-HIIT cardio. And if you feel like collapsing in a puddle of sweat after your HIIT workout, that adds time, too. (I have never hopped up and gotten straight into the shower after any kind of HIIT.)
So if you’re deciding on a workout based on the time you have available, make sure to consider the full commitment. And if you’re looking to HIIT because you find steady cardio bo-ring, try these underrated cardio workouts.
Again, HIIT’s tradeoff for being short and efficient is that it’s intense. That might sound like a good thing, but remember that calorie burn depends on the total amount of work you do.
If you’re exercising as part of an effort to lose or manage your weight, guidelines recommend 50 to 60 minutes of exercise most days of the week. You’re not going to reach that with HIIT alone, especially if you want to have the energy to do other exercise too, like the two days per week of strength training that are also recommended. A mix of HIIT and steady state cardio could do the trick, though.
If you want to race a fast 5K or improve your performance on the basketball court or soccer field, steady-state cardio is great, but it can’t be the only thing you do.
HIIT and other types of interval training will get you breathing hard and sending enormous amounts of oxygen to your muscles in those all-out efforts. This type of training directly benefits your VO2max, a measure of cardio fitness. You’ll want to do intervals in addition to other types of cardio, but they’re definitely too important to leave out.
During intense efforts, your muscles are screaming out for nutrients—specifically, glucose. Because of that, exercise improves your body’s ability to use blood sugar, and it reduces insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is one of the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes and of pre-diabetes.
Intervals, including HIIT, are thus a great tool for people who want to help their bodies learn to use glucose better. HIIT is also, paradoxically, sometimes easier to get started with than steady-state training, because you only have to work hard for a short while and then you can rest. Again, this is a case where you still want to do steady-state cardio (yes, walking counts) but HIIT is a great addition.
Honestly a great article. HIIT recently has become one of those magic fitness buzzwords that you see everywhere and its almost all fitness industry marketing BS to be honest. I’ve gotten to the point if I see or hear the word “afterburn” in any video or article that isn’t debunking it, I know the source doesn’t really know much about exercise science.
What sucks is so many people get immediately turned off by its discussion but it is actually quite useful. Its just not useful for that many people. First, most people who think they’re doing HIIT aren’t. HIIT should involve hitting close to 90% to 95% of your cardiovascular systems max, the vast majority of people cannot do that let alone for a prolonged period of time. Limiting factor tends to be the persons lung capability not heart by the way, a weak heart can EASILY get to near max, thats not a good thing by the way.
Where HIIT is useful is as mentioned building up that system. Your heart is a muscle and as such it grows stronger by progressive overload. Your lungs work in conjunction with the heart which allows your VO2 max to increase. A good VO2 max plus a low resting heart rate is one of the single best signs of fitness and more importantly long life.
Now, you don’t need HIIT to build it up. But like incorporating singles, doubles, and 1RMs in your weight training gets you stronger faster, HIIT does the same. However, just like that style of training, it tires you out faster as well. Which brings up the opportunity cost mentioned in the article.
Which brings up to what HIIT is bad for. Mostly everything else. Its terrible for burning off calories as its fatigue rate is too high to sustain it. Its actively dangerous for obese and out of shape people, especially the elderly, for a variety of reasons. Also as mentioned most people cannot actually do it, maxing out around at most MIIT (HR around 135 to 155 generally).
Also this might just be me but I found all my gains to VO2 max and my RHR quickly dissipated after I stopped doing as much HIIT. Unlike muscle mass and strength which you can maintain quite a bit easier, conditioning goes to hell really fast if you stop training as intensely. I got lots of respect for cardio based athletes.
What Causes Narcolepsy? These Factors May Play a Role | Health.com – Health.com
In many cases, chronic sleepiness is tied to low levels of certain brain chemicals.
When diagnosed with a new condition, the first question is almost always "How?" We naturally want to know exactly what brought us to that moment. This curiosity may be even stronger with something like narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder that is both under-recognized and misunderstood, according to the nonprofit Project Sleep.
While scientists have yet to pinpoint the exact cause of narcolepsy, a majority of cases are tied to low levels of a brain chemical involved in regulating our sleep-wake cycle, according to the Cleveland Clinic. And other factors are thought to play a role in triggering the disease process.
Here's how sleep experts explain the causes of narcolepsy.
Before delving into the causes, let's consider what narcolepsy looks like.
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, vivid dreams, and more, says Steven Thau, MD, division chief of the Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine Department and medical director of the Sleep Center at Phelps Hospital/Northwell Health.
It can present at any point in a person's life, but most commonly it initially occurs in a person's teens or 20s, Dr. Thau tells Health.
While each case is different, excessive daytime sleepiness is generally the first symptom to surface. Symptoms such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and cataplexy may follow, says Manjamalai Sivaraman, MD, FAASM, a sleep medicine specialist and neurologist at the University of Missouri. The latter may not happen for a few years, if at all.
RELATED: What Are the Types of Narcolepsy? Sleep Experts Explain the Differing Presentations of This Sleep Disorder
There are two main types of narcolepsy: types 1 and 2. There's also a third known as secondary narcolepsy. (More on that one below.)
Narcolepsy type 1 covers anyone who has low levels of hypocretin (a brain chemical that controls wakefulness) and experiences cataplexy (sudden muscle loss), according to the Mayo Clinic. Type 1 makes up about 70% of narcolepsy cases, says Richard Bogan, MD, a medical officer at SleepMed, Inc. and associate clinical professor at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine and the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston.
People with narcolepsy type 2 may experience all the symptoms of narcolepsy except cataplexy—and their symptoms are often less severe, says the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). And their hypocretin levels are usually normal.
While there are no known ways to prevent or cure type 1 or type 2 narcolepsy, NINDS notes that lifestyle changes and medications may be helpful for maintaining alertness and managing other symptoms.
RELATED: Is Narcolepsy Genetic? What Sleep Experts Say About Inheriting This Chronic Disorder
While the science is still evolving, here's what's known so far.
People with type 1 narcolepsy have very low levels of brain chemicals called hypocretins. These chemicals, first discovered in 1998, are important for a couple of reasons, per the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School. For one thing, they keep people awake and alert. They also prevent people from drifting off into REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep while they're awake.
In people type 1 narcolepsy, however, the nerve cells that produce hypocretins die off, and the resulting dearth of these chemicals leads to sleepiness and poorly regulated REM sleep, per Harvard's Sleep Medicine Division.
Research by two separate investigative teams suggests that type 1 narcolepsy is caused by a severe loss of neurons that produce these chemicals, per a 2015 review in the New England Journal of Medicine.
As for what causes type 2 narcolepsy? It's possible that people who have this form of the disorder may sustain less injury to their neurons than those with type 1, according to that same review, which references a 2009 Sleep study. But data on the disease process involved in type 2 narcolepsy "are quite limited," notes the New England Journal.
Bottom line: Scientists don't fully understand what triggers the loss of hypocretin-producing cells, although it appears that one or more of the following factors may be involved:
Most people with narcolepsy, especially type 1, have a gene variation known as HLA-DQB1*06:02. It is a variation of the HLA-DQB1 gene, which "provides instructions for making part of a protein that plays an important role in the immune system," according the US National Library of Medicine. The risk of narcolepsy associated with this variation and related genes is unclear to researchers at this time.
That same gene variation is found in 50% of people with narcolepsy type 2, but only 12-30% of the general population, according to the New England Journal.
Speaking of risk factors, narcolepsy isn't a disorder that tends to run in the family. According to NINDS, just up to 10% of people with type 1 narcolepsy have a close family member who presents with similar symptoms. If a parent has narcolepsy, the odds of passing it down to a child is only about 1%, says Mayo Clinic.
People with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 gene variation may be at increased risk of developing narcolepsy after being exposed to a trigger, such as an infection, says NINDS. That's based on studies of people after they developed narcolepsy.
Upper airway infections such as streptococcus pyogenes and influenza A (including H1N1) are strongly associated with narcolepsy, per a 2011 study in the Annals of Neurology, especially in cases where it begins in childhood, notes Dr. Sivaraman.
We know that people with narcolepsy type 1 have low hypocretin levels—but why? A leading theory considers narcolepsy to be an autoimmune disorder.
"There are supporting evidences for autoimmune destruction—the immune system in one's body attacking its own healthy cells—of hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus of the brain," says Dr. Sivaraman. To break it down, if this theory is true, then a person's own immune system is responsible for the brain lacking in hypocretin.
As Dr. Thau puts it, in this case, "the cells that control wakefulness are damaged."
Currently, researchers are working on using immunotherapy to reverse this loss, Dr. Bogan tells Health. According to a 2020 review published in Current Treatment Options in Neurology, small studies have shown an improvement in symptoms for narcolepsy patients after using immunotherapy treatment, especially those who recently presented with the disease. However, the experiments were uncontrolled and did not have clear endpoints, requiring more research to achieve any definitive answer on the treatment's benefits.
RELATED: 7 Narcolepsy Symptoms to Know, According to Sleep Specialists
Unlike narcolepsy types 1 and 2, doctors do know the "why" behind secondary narcolepsy. This form of narcolepsy occurs when the brain's hypothalamus region gets damaged, according to Harvard's Division of Sleep Medicine.
These people can experience all of the same symptoms as those with types 1 and 2. However, they might also have severe neurological problems and require a large amount of sleep—typically 10 hours or more.
"In rare cases, brain lesions or diseases such as tumors, vascular malformations, strokes or inflammatory diseases of the brain can result in the destruction of the signaling pathways that increase brain activity and promote wakefulness," says Dr. Thau.
According to the National Health Service, secondary narcolepsy causes include:
As Dr. Thau notes, "a healthy lifestyle and avoiding smoking or the use of illicit drugs decrease the risk of some of the disorders that cause secondary narcolepsy."
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Mount Laurel police asks public's help in finding child – Courier Post
MOUNT LAUREL – Police are asking the public’s help in finding a 6-year-old girl who was allegedly abducted by her non-custodial mother.
The girl, Grace Craytor of Pennsauken, was last seen around 7:10 p.m. Monday with her mother, Kristina Maletteri, at Lifetime Fitness in Mount Laurel, according to township police.
The girl’s father, who has a full custody order for Grace, had invited Maletteri to swim with the child during a supervised visit at the facility at Church and Fellowship roads, said a police account.
“At some point, Ms. Maletteri is said to have taken her daughter and left the area without consent,” the account said.
Maletteri is known to drive a 2017 silver Audi Q3 with New Jersey license plates “S64MPY.”
The missing child is 46 inches tall, 70 pounds, with blonde hair and hazel eyes, police said.
Anyone with information is asked to call Mount Laurel police at 856-234-8300 or the confidential tip line 856-234-1414, extension 1599.
Tips can also be emailed to Lamaro@mountlaurelpd.org.
Jim Walsh covers public safety, economic development and other beats for the Courier-Post, Burlington County Times and The Daily Journal.
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Healthy Snacks for the Office – How to Pack Food for Work – menshealth.com
Our product picks are editor-tested, expert-approved. We may earn a commission through links on our site.
Allow these experts to help pack your lunchbox.
Buh-bye, vending machine. Here are four easy ways to boost your energy at work. Plus, three moves to make any lunch meeting extra appetizing.
Combine carbs and protein for long-lasting energy, says Marisa Moore, R.D.N., an integrative dietitian. Mix roasted, lightly salted sunflower seeds and dried blueberries in a small jar for a snack that’s sweet, salty, and crunchy. Bonus: The unsaturated fats in the seeds will keep you feeling full.
A favorite of Cara Harbstreet, R.D., of Street Smart Nutrition, is protein- and omega-3-rich tuna or salmon (StarKist makes packaged versions) spread on sliced cucumbers or mini bell peppers. Drizzle with your favorite hot sauce for a tiny yet protein-packed meal.
Jordan Mazur, R.D., director of nutrition for the San Francisco 49ers, suggests these key ingredients: shredded rotisserie chicken for lean protein; pistachios, walnuts, pumpkin seeds,dried tart cherries, and dark chocolate chips for a healthy trail mix; and antioxidant-rich blueberries or grapes.
Don’t go more than three to four hours without eating, to help keep your blood sugar steady. You can avoid mindless snacking by setting an alarm to get up every hour instead of reaching for the chips, says Kelly Hogan Laubinger, R.D
As we head back to the office, those DIY outdoor lunches can still be the thing to do.
TRY A HEARTY SALAD IN A JAR, says Moore. Build it from the bottom up: Start with a vinaigrette, then add chickpeas, carrots, tomatoes, olives, and cucumbers. Add feta to the top for a salty, tangy finish. Close, and shake when ready to eat.
REINVENT YOUR SANDWICH. Slapping protein and a salad’s worth of greens between whole-grain bread works well, too: Try sliced turkey or canned tuna, topped with sprouts, cucumbers, leafy greens, avocado, and tomato.
MAKE A HEALTHY CHEESE BOARD, says Harbstreet. Go with hard cheeses like cheddar and Gouda and a soft cheese like cottage. Pair pita bread or crispy crackers with jerky or low-sodium deli meats. Then toss in pistachios and blueberries.
This article appears in the October 2021 issue of Men’s Health.
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