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When considering gut health, probiotics should be a top priority in your diet. These healthy bacteria help to maintain equilibrium and regularity in your digestive tract, and may even play important roles in your immune system and fighting inflammation in your body. While there are many different ways to consume probiotics, yogurt is one of the most convenient and tasty ways to get a daily dose of these gut-friendly microorganisms.
We’ll take a look at the different yogurts you can buy to determine which best for a healthy gut.
They may all start with a cow’s milk base, but the different processes of making yogurt result in different benefits.
Compared to other types of yogurt, regular yogurt most notably has a less tangy flavor and a much thinner texture than other yogurt varieties. This is the traditional yogurt many of us grew up with, and while regular yogurt contains less protein than Greek and Icelandic varieties, it typically contains a higher number of probiotics, making it a good choice for gut health.
RELATED: The Best & Worst Yogurts on Shelves in 2021—Ranked!
This thicker form of yogurt exploded in popularity over the last decade, and for good reason. Greek yogurt goes through a straining process that removes much of the liquid, thus creating a thicker, more creamy texture. This process makes the protein more concentrated in the yogurt; however, while the liquid is being removed, so are some of the nutrients, including probiotics.
Icelandic yogurt goes through a similar process as Greek yogurt, although it goes through additional straining to create an even denser product that is also less tart. Because of the additional straining, it is likely that even more probiotics are removed from this form of yogurt. So, while creamy, delicious, and high in protein, Icelandic yogurt may not be the best option for those looking to use yogurt to maximize probiotic intake for gut health.
Kefir often gets thrown into the yogurt category, and you will often find it near yogurt in the grocery store; however, it is considered to be a “liquid milk beverage”. Regular yogurt and kefir are both fermented dairy products and actually have a similar nutrient profile. While calories, protein, and calcium remain similar, kefir often contains more probiotics than yogurt. Some data even suggests kefir, which can average 61 different strains of probiotic bacteria, contains as much as three times the number of probiotics in regular yogurt.
READ MORE: 6 Reasons to Start Drinking Kefir
Probiotics are the most important ingredient to look at when considering how yogurt can best maintain a healthy gut. This fact makes kefir the best yogurt option to help maintain a healthy gut. However, for traditionalists who may not consider kefir to be part of the yogurt family, the next best option would be regular yogurt as it has the next highest number of probiotics. If you do want to eat regular yogurt for gut health, make sure you’re looking for a brand that has the lowest amount of added sugar—aim for less than 10 grams per cup.
Greek and Icelandic yogurts are still great options as they do provide some probiotics along with a hearty dose of protein.
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What Causes Narcolepsy? These Factors May Play a Role | Health.com – Health.com
In many cases, chronic sleepiness is tied to low levels of certain brain chemicals.
When diagnosed with a new condition, the first question is almost always "How?" We naturally want to know exactly what brought us to that moment. This curiosity may be even stronger with something like narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder that is both under-recognized and misunderstood, according to the nonprofit Project Sleep.
While scientists have yet to pinpoint the exact cause of narcolepsy, a majority of cases are tied to low levels of a brain chemical involved in regulating our sleep-wake cycle, according to the Cleveland Clinic. And other factors are thought to play a role in triggering the disease process.
Here's how sleep experts explain the causes of narcolepsy.
Before delving into the causes, let's consider what narcolepsy looks like.
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, vivid dreams, and more, says Steven Thau, MD, division chief of the Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine Department and medical director of the Sleep Center at Phelps Hospital/Northwell Health.
It can present at any point in a person's life, but most commonly it initially occurs in a person's teens or 20s, Dr. Thau tells Health.
While each case is different, excessive daytime sleepiness is generally the first symptom to surface. Symptoms such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and cataplexy may follow, says Manjamalai Sivaraman, MD, FAASM, a sleep medicine specialist and neurologist at the University of Missouri. The latter may not happen for a few years, if at all.
RELATED: What Are the Types of Narcolepsy? Sleep Experts Explain the Differing Presentations of This Sleep Disorder
There are two main types of narcolepsy: types 1 and 2. There's also a third known as secondary narcolepsy. (More on that one below.)
Narcolepsy type 1 covers anyone who has low levels of hypocretin (a brain chemical that controls wakefulness) and experiences cataplexy (sudden muscle loss), according to the Mayo Clinic. Type 1 makes up about 70% of narcolepsy cases, says Richard Bogan, MD, a medical officer at SleepMed, Inc. and associate clinical professor at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine and the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston.
People with narcolepsy type 2 may experience all the symptoms of narcolepsy except cataplexy—and their symptoms are often less severe, says the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). And their hypocretin levels are usually normal.
While there are no known ways to prevent or cure type 1 or type 2 narcolepsy, NINDS notes that lifestyle changes and medications may be helpful for maintaining alertness and managing other symptoms.
RELATED: Is Narcolepsy Genetic? What Sleep Experts Say About Inheriting This Chronic Disorder
While the science is still evolving, here's what's known so far.
People with type 1 narcolepsy have very low levels of brain chemicals called hypocretins. These chemicals, first discovered in 1998, are important for a couple of reasons, per the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School. For one thing, they keep people awake and alert. They also prevent people from drifting off into REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep while they're awake.
In people type 1 narcolepsy, however, the nerve cells that produce hypocretins die off, and the resulting dearth of these chemicals leads to sleepiness and poorly regulated REM sleep, per Harvard's Sleep Medicine Division.
Research by two separate investigative teams suggests that type 1 narcolepsy is caused by a severe loss of neurons that produce these chemicals, per a 2015 review in the New England Journal of Medicine.
As for what causes type 2 narcolepsy? It's possible that people who have this form of the disorder may sustain less injury to their neurons than those with type 1, according to that same review, which references a 2009 Sleep study. But data on the disease process involved in type 2 narcolepsy "are quite limited," notes the New England Journal.
Bottom line: Scientists don't fully understand what triggers the loss of hypocretin-producing cells, although it appears that one or more of the following factors may be involved:
Most people with narcolepsy, especially type 1, have a gene variation known as HLA-DQB1*06:02. It is a variation of the HLA-DQB1 gene, which "provides instructions for making part of a protein that plays an important role in the immune system," according the US National Library of Medicine. The risk of narcolepsy associated with this variation and related genes is unclear to researchers at this time.
That same gene variation is found in 50% of people with narcolepsy type 2, but only 12-30% of the general population, according to the New England Journal.
Speaking of risk factors, narcolepsy isn't a disorder that tends to run in the family. According to NINDS, just up to 10% of people with type 1 narcolepsy have a close family member who presents with similar symptoms. If a parent has narcolepsy, the odds of passing it down to a child is only about 1%, says Mayo Clinic.
People with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 gene variation may be at increased risk of developing narcolepsy after being exposed to a trigger, such as an infection, says NINDS. That's based on studies of people after they developed narcolepsy.
Upper airway infections such as streptococcus pyogenes and influenza A (including H1N1) are strongly associated with narcolepsy, per a 2011 study in the Annals of Neurology, especially in cases where it begins in childhood, notes Dr. Sivaraman.
We know that people with narcolepsy type 1 have low hypocretin levels—but why? A leading theory considers narcolepsy to be an autoimmune disorder.
"There are supporting evidences for autoimmune destruction—the immune system in one's body attacking its own healthy cells—of hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus of the brain," says Dr. Sivaraman. To break it down, if this theory is true, then a person's own immune system is responsible for the brain lacking in hypocretin.
As Dr. Thau puts it, in this case, "the cells that control wakefulness are damaged."
Currently, researchers are working on using immunotherapy to reverse this loss, Dr. Bogan tells Health. According to a 2020 review published in Current Treatment Options in Neurology, small studies have shown an improvement in symptoms for narcolepsy patients after using immunotherapy treatment, especially those who recently presented with the disease. However, the experiments were uncontrolled and did not have clear endpoints, requiring more research to achieve any definitive answer on the treatment's benefits.
RELATED: 7 Narcolepsy Symptoms to Know, According to Sleep Specialists
Unlike narcolepsy types 1 and 2, doctors do know the "why" behind secondary narcolepsy. This form of narcolepsy occurs when the brain's hypothalamus region gets damaged, according to Harvard's Division of Sleep Medicine.
These people can experience all of the same symptoms as those with types 1 and 2. However, they might also have severe neurological problems and require a large amount of sleep—typically 10 hours or more.
"In rare cases, brain lesions or diseases such as tumors, vascular malformations, strokes or inflammatory diseases of the brain can result in the destruction of the signaling pathways that increase brain activity and promote wakefulness," says Dr. Thau.
According to the National Health Service, secondary narcolepsy causes include:
As Dr. Thau notes, "a healthy lifestyle and avoiding smoking or the use of illicit drugs decrease the risk of some of the disorders that cause secondary narcolepsy."
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Mount Laurel police asks public's help in finding child – Courier Post
MOUNT LAUREL – Police are asking the public’s help in finding a 6-year-old girl who was allegedly abducted by her non-custodial mother.
The girl, Grace Craytor of Pennsauken, was last seen around 7:10 p.m. Monday with her mother, Kristina Maletteri, at Lifetime Fitness in Mount Laurel, according to township police.
The girl’s father, who has a full custody order for Grace, had invited Maletteri to swim with the child during a supervised visit at the facility at Church and Fellowship roads, said a police account.
“At some point, Ms. Maletteri is said to have taken her daughter and left the area without consent,” the account said.
Maletteri is known to drive a 2017 silver Audi Q3 with New Jersey license plates “S64MPY.”
The missing child is 46 inches tall, 70 pounds, with blonde hair and hazel eyes, police said.
Anyone with information is asked to call Mount Laurel police at 856-234-8300 or the confidential tip line 856-234-1414, extension 1599.
Tips can also be emailed to Lamaro@mountlaurelpd.org.
Jim Walsh covers public safety, economic development and other beats for the Courier-Post, Burlington County Times and The Daily Journal.
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Healthy Snacks for the Office – How to Pack Food for Work – menshealth.com
Our product picks are editor-tested, expert-approved. We may earn a commission through links on our site.
Allow these experts to help pack your lunchbox.
Buh-bye, vending machine. Here are four easy ways to boost your energy at work. Plus, three moves to make any lunch meeting extra appetizing.
Combine carbs and protein for long-lasting energy, says Marisa Moore, R.D.N., an integrative dietitian. Mix roasted, lightly salted sunflower seeds and dried blueberries in a small jar for a snack that’s sweet, salty, and crunchy. Bonus: The unsaturated fats in the seeds will keep you feeling full.
A favorite of Cara Harbstreet, R.D., of Street Smart Nutrition, is protein- and omega-3-rich tuna or salmon (StarKist makes packaged versions) spread on sliced cucumbers or mini bell peppers. Drizzle with your favorite hot sauce for a tiny yet protein-packed meal.
Jordan Mazur, R.D., director of nutrition for the San Francisco 49ers, suggests these key ingredients: shredded rotisserie chicken for lean protein; pistachios, walnuts, pumpkin seeds,dried tart cherries, and dark chocolate chips for a healthy trail mix; and antioxidant-rich blueberries or grapes.
Don’t go more than three to four hours without eating, to help keep your blood sugar steady. You can avoid mindless snacking by setting an alarm to get up every hour instead of reaching for the chips, says Kelly Hogan Laubinger, R.D
As we head back to the office, those DIY outdoor lunches can still be the thing to do.
TRY A HEARTY SALAD IN A JAR, says Moore. Build it from the bottom up: Start with a vinaigrette, then add chickpeas, carrots, tomatoes, olives, and cucumbers. Add feta to the top for a salty, tangy finish. Close, and shake when ready to eat.
REINVENT YOUR SANDWICH. Slapping protein and a salad’s worth of greens between whole-grain bread works well, too: Try sliced turkey or canned tuna, topped with sprouts, cucumbers, leafy greens, avocado, and tomato.
MAKE A HEALTHY CHEESE BOARD, says Harbstreet. Go with hard cheeses like cheddar and Gouda and a soft cheese like cottage. Pair pita bread or crispy crackers with jerky or low-sodium deli meats. Then toss in pistachios and blueberries.
This article appears in the October 2021 issue of Men’s Health.
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