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What Causes Narcolepsy? These Factors May Play a Role | Health.com – Health.com

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In many cases, chronic sleepiness is tied to low levels of certain brain chemicals.
When diagnosed with a new condition, the first question is almost always "How?" We naturally want to know exactly what brought us to that moment. This curiosity may be even stronger with something like narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder that is both under-recognized and misunderstood, according to the nonprofit Project Sleep.
While scientists have yet to pinpoint the exact cause of narcolepsy, a majority of cases are tied to low levels of a brain chemical involved in regulating our sleep-wake cycle, according to the Cleveland Clinic. And other factors are thought to play a role in triggering the disease process.
Here's how sleep experts explain the causes of narcolepsy.
Before delving into the causes, let's consider what narcolepsy looks like.
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, hallucinations, sleep paralysis, vivid dreams, and more, says Steven Thau, MD, division chief of the Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine Department and medical director of the Sleep Center at Phelps Hospital/Northwell Health.
It can present at any point in a person's life, but most commonly it initially occurs in a person's teens or 20s, Dr. Thau tells Health.
While each case is different, excessive daytime sleepiness is generally the first symptom to surface. Symptoms such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and cataplexy may follow, says Manjamalai Sivaraman, MD, FAASM, a sleep medicine specialist and neurologist at the University of Missouri. The latter may not happen for a few years, if at all. 
RELATED: What Are the Types of Narcolepsy? Sleep Experts Explain the Differing Presentations of This Sleep Disorder
There are two main types of narcolepsy: types 1 and 2. There's also a third known as secondary narcolepsy. (More on that one below.)
Narcolepsy type 1 covers anyone who has low levels of hypocretin (a brain chemical that controls wakefulness) and experiences cataplexy (sudden muscle loss), according to the Mayo Clinic. Type 1 makes up about 70% of narcolepsy cases, says Richard Bogan, MD, a medical officer at SleepMed, Inc. and associate clinical professor at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine and the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston.
People with narcolepsy type 2 may experience all the symptoms of narcolepsy except cataplexy—and their symptoms are often less severe, says the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). And their hypocretin levels are usually normal.
While there are no known ways to prevent or cure type 1 or type 2 narcolepsy, NINDS notes that lifestyle changes and medications may be helpful for maintaining alertness and managing other symptoms.
RELATED: Is Narcolepsy Genetic? What Sleep Experts Say About Inheriting This Chronic Disorder
While the science is still evolving, here's what's known so far.
People with type 1 narcolepsy have very low levels of brain chemicals called hypocretins. These chemicals, first discovered in 1998, are important for a couple of reasons, per the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School. For one thing, they keep people awake and alert. They also prevent people from drifting off into REM (rapid-eye movement) sleep while they're awake.
In people type 1 narcolepsy, however, the nerve cells that produce hypocretins die off, and the resulting dearth of these chemicals leads to sleepiness and poorly regulated REM sleep, per Harvard's Sleep Medicine Division.
Research by two separate investigative teams suggests that type 1 narcolepsy is caused by a severe loss of neurons that produce these chemicals, per a 2015 review in the New England Journal of Medicine.
As for what causes type 2 narcolepsy? It's possible that people who have this form of the disorder may sustain less injury to their neurons than those with type 1, according to that same review, which references a 2009 Sleep study. But data on the disease process involved in type 2 narcolepsy "are quite limited," notes the New England Journal.
Bottom line: Scientists don't fully understand what triggers the loss of hypocretin-producing cells, although it appears that one or more of the following factors may be involved:
Most people with narcolepsy, especially type 1, have a gene variation known as HLA-DQB1*06:02. It is a variation of the HLA-DQB1 gene, which "provides instructions for making part of a protein that plays an important role in the immune system," according the US National Library of Medicine. The risk of narcolepsy associated with this variation and related genes is unclear to researchers at this time.
That same gene variation is found in 50% of people with narcolepsy type 2, but only 12-30% of the general population, according to the New England Journal.
Speaking of risk factors, narcolepsy isn't a disorder that tends to run in the family. According to NINDS, just up to 10% of people with type 1 narcolepsy have a close family member who presents with similar symptoms. If a parent has narcolepsy, the odds of passing it down to a child is only about 1%, says Mayo Clinic.
People with the HLA-DQB1*06:02 gene variation may be at increased risk of developing narcolepsy after being exposed to a trigger, such as an infection, says NINDS. That's based on studies of people after they developed narcolepsy.
Upper airway infections such as streptococcus pyogenes and influenza A (including H1N1) are strongly associated with narcolepsy, per a 2011 study in the Annals of Neurology, especially in cases where it begins in childhood, notes Dr. Sivaraman.
We know that people with narcolepsy type 1 have low hypocretin levels—but why? A leading theory considers narcolepsy to be an autoimmune disorder.
"There are supporting evidences for autoimmune destruction—the immune system in one's body attacking its own healthy cells—of hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus of the brain," says Dr. Sivaraman. To break it down, if this theory is true, then a person's own immune system is responsible for the brain lacking in hypocretin.
As Dr. Thau puts it, in this case, "the cells that control wakefulness are damaged."
Currently, researchers are working on using immunotherapy to reverse this loss, Dr. Bogan tells Health. According to a 2020 review published in Current Treatment Options in Neurology, small studies have shown an improvement in symptoms for narcolepsy patients after using immunotherapy treatment, especially those who recently presented with the disease. However, the experiments were uncontrolled and did not have clear endpoints, requiring more research to achieve any definitive answer on the treatment's benefits.  
RELATED: 7 Narcolepsy Symptoms to Know, According to Sleep Specialists
Unlike narcolepsy types 1 and 2, doctors do know the "why" behind secondary narcolepsy. This form of narcolepsy occurs when the brain's hypothalamus region gets damaged, according to Harvard's Division of Sleep Medicine.
These people can experience all of the same symptoms as those with types 1 and 2. However, they might also have severe neurological problems and require a large amount of sleep—typically 10 hours or more.
"In rare cases, brain lesions or diseases such as tumors, vascular malformations, strokes or inflammatory diseases of the brain can result in the destruction of the signaling pathways that increase brain activity and promote wakefulness," says Dr. Thau.
According to the National Health Service, secondary narcolepsy causes include:
As Dr. Thau notes, "a healthy lifestyle and avoiding smoking or the use of illicit drugs decrease the risk of some of the disorders that cause secondary narcolepsy."
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Echelon Fitness Offers Workouts with ProFootball Alums – PRNewswire

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Jan 19, 2022, 11:32 ET
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CHATTANOOGA, Tenn., Jan. 19, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Echelon, the connected fitness company revolutionizing the way people move, is offering an exclusive series of live, in-studio connected bike rides with former professional football players.
Now through February 13, 2022, former professional players join Echelon instructors on an interview-style ride and include alums from the Tennessee Titans, Philadelphia Eagles, Green Bay Packers, San Francisco 49ers, Seattle Seahawks, Miami Dolphins, Jacksonville Jaguars, and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. 
The rides take place at 6:30pm EST with the following schedule:
1/3/22 – Martín Gramática (now-On-Demand)
1/10/22Dorsey Levens (now-On-Demand)
1/17/22Ricky Watter (now-On-Demand)
1/24/22 – Fred Taylor LIVE!
1/31/22 – Reggie Wayne LIVE!
2/7/22 – Jevon "The Freak" Kearse LIVE!
"We are thrilled to continue to bring motivating athletes and content to our members. Our special guests boast 17 championship wins among them," said Kevin Custer, Chief Content Officer, Echelon Fitness. "We know how competitive these guys are, even off the field. We are excited to see how they will use their reputations and competitiveness to pump up members to support their favorite teams and players."
The rides will be live and also available On Demand on the member app. For more information about Echelon Fitness go to https://echelonfit.com/.
ABOUT ECHELON
Echelon has revolutionized at-home fitness since 2017 with a range of smart exercise equipment and an immersive membership experience. What began as a mission to make healthy living accessible to all has evolved to a thriving, global brand. Echelon empowers everyone to experience the feeling of elation and accomplishment after achieving their fitness goals. Members connect their Echelon smart bikes, rowers, treadmills, or fitness mirrors to the Echelon Fit app for access to live and on-demand workout classes filmed at Echelon studios around the world and led by professional instructors. Through the app, members track performance and progress in real-time, compete on the interactive Leaderboard and explore more than 2,000 off-equipment workouts to keep them motivated and inspired. For more information, visit echelonfit.com.
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The 13 Best Healthy Snacks in 2022 – Eat This, Not That

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We’ve consulted with our team of licensed nutritionists and dietitians to bring you informed recommendations for food products, health aids and nutritional goods to safely and successfully guide you toward making better diet and nutrition choices. We strive to only recommend products that adhere to our philosophy of eating better while still enjoying what you eat.
With a ton of restaurants closed, cooking fatigue still going strong from 2020, and nothing else to do but curl up on the couch and binge-watch yet another TV show, snacks became much more than comfort food during 2021. Snacks were one of the primary ways Americans nourished themselves.
While many of us gravitated towards childhood favorites (think sugary cereals or neon-colored chips) to satisfy our cravings, others were on the lookout for some more health-supporting options. Thankfully, food brands were on the same page—so much so that a whopping 100 new healthy snacks that launched nationwide between January 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021 on grocery store shelves were nominated for the 2022 Eat This, Not That! Food Awards.
In the end, 13 snack products stood out from the rest with their impressive nutrition and great taste. Eat This, Not That! Medical Expert Board member Lauren Manaker, MS, RD, CDN, helped rate the products and choose the winners, then we taste-tested each one. Read on for our honest reviews—and to see where you can buy the winners!
Watch out taste test video and check out how each winner ranked below.
 
KEHO Curry in a Hurry Bar
A meal in a bar, this keto offering is billed as “curry without the rice.” It’s made with cauliflower, coconut, nuts, spinach, prebiotic fiber, and a blend of Indian spices.
The expert’s take: “A savory bar allows for awesome flavor without having to worry about added carbs. Made with all-natural ingredients like real cauliflower, spinach, and nuts, these bars are a perfect on-the-go option that isn’t loaded with artificial sweeteners that can sometimes be hard to tolerate,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “The complexity of flavors here is unmatched by any other snack I’ve ever tried, but the earthiness threw me off based on what my brain has been primed to expect when eating a meal bar,” says Senior Editor Olivia Tarantino.
Chasin' Dreams Farm sweet and salty popped sorghum
Instead of kettle corn, try kettle sorghum! This ancient grain is a fraction of the size of corn, which delivers tiny pops of crunchy deliciousness in every bag.
The expert’s take: “Sorghum is an ancient grain that is naturally packed with antioxidants. And if you are a popcorn lover but you hate those little kernels that get stuck in your teeth, popped sorghum is your best bet. Plus, the sorghum is a natural source of fiber, making it a snack that also supports gut health,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “I’m not usually a fan of anything ‘caramel’ flavored—and that’s because it’s typically done with fake flavors. You’ll find none of that here. The flavors are pure and crisp, but the super tiny size of each of the kernels makes this snack a little bit harder to eat than a big bag of popcorn,” says Tarantino.
Ancient Provisions Cheddar Cheezish Gluten-Free Crackers
These crackers are a gluten-free, grain-free dupe of that childhood classic square cheese crunch. Rather than being made of wheat and cheese, they use a blend of cassava flour and green banana flour that utilizes otherwise wasted bananas and turns them into flour.
The expert’s take: “Using green banana flour in these crackers gives this snack some natural prebiotic fiber, which can help support a healthy gut microbiome. These gluten-free crackers are made with natural ingredients to offer a simple option to accompany snacktime,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “I didn’t expect much cheese flavor based on the brown color of the cracker, but boy, was I surprised. These thin squares are mighty flavorful and tasty without needing any dairy—the ‘cheezish’ flavor comes from a balanced blend of yeast extract and spices,” says Tarantino.
Chosen Foods Avocado Tomatillo Salsa
Chosen Foods thought, “Everyone likes guacamole and salsa, so why don’t we combine them?” And we were subsequently in awe of their genius. This avocado-based salsa combines perfectly-ripe Haas avocados with tomatillo, jalapeño, lime juice, sea salt, garlic, onion, cilantro, and that’s it—absolutely no synthetic preservatives!
The expert’s take: “This salsa is only made with natural ingredients and no preservatives. And since we are all going avocado crazy these days, it is nice to see real avocados as the first ingredient listed on the food label,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “If you like green salsa but are always slightly disappointed that you can’t get more of it on your chip because it’s just a little too thin, then you need to try this version. The avocado provides integrity (and healthy fats) to this tomatillo salsa, making it perfectly dippable,” says Tarantino.
Real Food From the Ground Up cauliflower potato chips
Just before you thought cauliflower couldn’t turn into another type of snack food, REAL FOOD FROM THE GROUND UP said, “Hold my drink.” Cauliflower pairs with gluten-free cassava flour as the base for these low-fat, veggie-packed potato chips.
The expert’s take: “Some cauliflower-based snacks totally miss the boat when it comes to flavor. But REAL FOOD FROM THE GROUND UP Sour Cream and Onion Cauliflower Potato Chips nail it in both the taste and the nutrition department. Made with real cauliflower and a veggie blend that contains spinach, broccoli, carrot, tomato, beet, and shiitake mushrooms, noshing on these crispy snacks is a great swap for potato chip lovers (and who isn’t a potato chip lover?). Not only that, this Sour Cream & Onion flavor is dairy-free, so the snack is entirely plant-based and vegan,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “Wow, can you say, ‘healthy Pringle?’ The sour cream and onion flavor is spot-on for what I was expecting, but the cassava and cauliflower give this chip a much more delicate texture compared to potato-based Pringles, which is extremely refreshing,” says Tarantino.
You’ve never had energy bites quite like this before. Malua’s bites are made with a blend of prebiotic green banana powder and superfoods to nourish your microbiome: a community of trillions of bacteria that exists in your gut and supports many aspects of your health, from your immunity to your mood.
The expert’s take: “This snack is made with nourishing ingredients like peanut butter and cocoa. And while many protein snacks double as a sugar bomb, these only contain 3 grams of sugar per ball. Using date syrup helps make these snacks a good choice, as this sweetener is considered to be a lower glycemic option vs. table sugar, potentially helping prevent blood sugar spikes. With no preservatives and nothing artificial, these snacks are a good-for-you option that packs a punch in the nutrition department,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “Nothing super-crazy is happening texturally here. The bites have the texture of a chewy fig bar, and they are perfectly portioned,” says Tarantino.
Solely Organic Whole Fruit Mango Gummies
There’s no gelatin, glucose syrup, or artificial ingredients here. These organic gummies contain only two ingredients—mango and vitamin—for a simply sweet whole-food-based snack.
The expert’s take: “These snacks are made with natural mango that is naturally sweet—eliminating the need to add any sugar to this snack. The individual snack size bags make them easy to enjoy on the go and even pack in a child’s lunch box. And since they are made with only two ingredients, nobody has to question what they are putting into their body,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “If you’re a mango fan, you’re going to love this snack because it tastes of pure mango. Unlike dried mango strips that are a bit hard and fibrous, Solely’s bites are tender with a light chew that will help slow you down so you don’t down the entire pouch in one handful (which is very possible based on how tasty they are!),” says Tarantino.
Bada Bean Bada Boom Everything Bagel Snack
Gone are the days of deep-fried potatoes. Say hello to the best innovation in crunchy snacking: Bada Bean Bada Boom. These crunchy bean snacks are made from whole broad beans that are baked and then dusted with a crispy layer of flavor-packed seasoning.
The expert’s take: “Everything but the bagel seasoning goes well on just about everything—including fava beans! Having a snack that is packed with plant-based protein, natural fiber, and antioxidants is important when trying to tackle hunger. And with the satisfying taste of everything but the bagel seasoning included in this snack, noshing on them can make snack time both enjoyable and nourishing,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “To me, nothing is as satisfying as a crunchy snack, and these broad beans certainly fit the bill. While they’re not a perfect dupe of your favorite bagel, notes of garlic and onion do come through for an umami-rich bite. The bag may be small and the calories low, but your stomach will be full and happy once you’ve polished it off (thanks to it being a great source of protein and fiber),” says Tarantino.
Whisps Hot and Spicy Cheese Crisps
This is going to be your new favorite flaming hot cheese snack! These cheese crisps are made of 100% baked cheddar cheese and simply seasoned with a blend of spices reminiscent of everyone’s go-to bar food: buffalo wings.
The expert’s take: “Hot and spicy usually also means fried when it comes to snacks. But Whisps’ Hot & Spicy cheese crisps, baked with 100% cheddar and spices, have 9 grams of protein and only 2 grams of carbs per serving, making these a craveable yet healthy snack,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “Whisps are a cheese snack that knows how to balance crispy and buttery. These cheddar cheese crisps don’t break into a million pieces upon first bite—there’s a solid amount of integrity that makes it easy to eat each crisp in two bites (but you probably won’t have to be concerned with that after finishing your first one). This high-protein, low-carb snack is tangy, yet packs a little less heat than I expected. Alas, it makes polishing off the entire bag much more enjoyable than eating through it with your mouth feeling like it’s on fire,” says Tarantino.
Stryve peppered beef biltong
Biltong is like jerky—but better. Specifically, biltong is a process for preserving meat by air drying that uses no sugar, MSG, gluten, nitrates, or preservatives.
The expert’s take: “Meat snacks can make for a great choice for people who are focused on eating protein-rich snacks without a ton of carbs. But unfortunately, many options can be loaded with nitrates and nitritesingredients that have been linked to some unsavory health outcomes. This biltong uses vinegar as a preservative instead of what we commonly see used in jerkys and other meat snacks, making this option a safer choice when supporting your overall health,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “The meat is thinly sliced, making it mouth-meltingly tender but also somewhat crispy (in a good way). The peppered bag should be a go-to for anyone looking for a solid protein snack, but it might be lacking for those in search of a flavor bomb,” says Tarantino.
Core coconut chocolate chip bar
CORE Bars need to be refrigerated because they’re made with real food (not preservatives). This bar contains prebiotics and probiotics for an all-in-one gut health solution that supports healthy digestion and a satisfied stomach, thanks to 6 grams of protein and 7 grams of fiber per bar.
The expert’s take: “Enjoying these bars makes it simple to support gut health, thanks to the prebiotics and probiotics they contain. And thanks to the addition of ingredients like roasted peanuts and chia seeds, these bars also contain a boost of healthy fats that our bodies need to function properly. These bars are a great solution for busy people who tend to skip probiotic-rich foods like yogurts, kefir, and other fermented foods,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “If your favorite candy as a kid was an Almond Joy, man do I have the snack for you. This is like a grown-up version of the classic coconut candy that isn’t cloyingly sweet. Unlike other meal replacement bars that either fall apart after one bite or take forever to chew because they’re mostly dried fruit, CORE Bars strike the perfect balance of bite-worthy texture and incredible flavor,” says Tarantino.
SkinnyDipped cashews
These aren’t your average chocolate-covered nuts. Somehow, Skinny Dipped has figured out a way to delicately coat these cashews with a thin, velvety layer of rich chocolate that tastes like the finest truffle you’ve ever had.
The expert’s take: “I love how these snacks contain plant-based protein to help promote satiety. And these Skinny Dipped snacks have just enough chocolate to satisfy cravings without going overboard. Dark chocolate is a natural source of antioxidants and contains important minerals like magnesium and copper. So, enjoying these sweet treats also gives your body some important nutrition,” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “These cashews have a chocolatey taste that rivals any high-end chocolate you’ve been gifted for Valentine’s Day. They’re perfectly crunchy, slightly salty, and sweet enough to satisfy any sugar cravings,” says Tarantino.
Toodaloo adaptogenic trail mix
Toodaloo brought trail mix into the 21st century. This nut and seed blend is made with healing, adaptogenic herbs and real superfoods like roasted chickpeas, nuts, and seeds.
The expert’s take: “Some nut mixes can be packed with ingredients like sugar and unhealthy oils, but this mix contains no added sugars and is loaded with natural flavors like lemon peel and chiles. Plus, the adaptogenic ingredients are an added bonus to help people keep their ‘chill’—and who doesn’t need that these days?” says Manaker.
Our tasting notes: “Goodbye my sweet, sweet BBQ potato chips! This trail mix boasts the same addictive flavors of my favorite bag of chips but with an incredible textural complexity thanks to a blend of five different nuts, seeds, and legumes. I literally eat these by the handful,” says Tarantino.
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Don't be fooled; don't mess with Omicron variant – The Robesonian

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